Under the compulsions of state formation, Portugal’s Estado da India and Tipu’s saltanat-i-khudadad, forced Mangalore’s Catholic community into total identity changes in a span less than 300 years. While the Estado da India’s carrot-and-stick methods absorbed them into its Nagao Portuguesa, Tipu forcibly stamped them with a new Islamic identity in 1784.
Both attempted to replace their religion, customs, and language with those of the state and make them totally dependant on it, in effect, convert them into slaves of the state. Slaves of Sultans is a vivid descent into this turbulent period when European states fought Indian rulers with arms and ideologies for India’s riches and people.
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